Reading comprehension Reading comprehension requires making sense of text, which allows a reader to gain knowledge, enjoy a story, and make connections with the larger world. World knowledge aids in understanding fiction and domain-specific knowledge facilitates comprehension of nonfiction. In this process, "children first experience a particular set of cognitive activities in the presence of experts, and only gradually come to perform these functions by themselves.
Open adoption allows identifying information to be communicated between adoptive and biological parents and, perhaps, interaction between kin and the adopted person.
In some jurisdictions, the biological and adoptive parents may enter into a legally enforceable and binding agreement concerning visitation, exchange of information, or other interaction regarding the child.
Nevertheless, closed adoption may allow the transmittal of non-identifying information such as medical history and religious and ethnic background. In so-called "safe-haven" states, infants can be left, anonymously, at hospitals, fire departments, or police stations within a few days of birth, a practice criticized by some adoption advocacy organizations as being retrograde and dangerous.
Historically, most adoptions occurred within a family. The most recent data from the U.
Intra-family adoption can also occur through surrender, as a result of parental death, or when the child cannot otherwise be cared for and a family member agrees to take over. Infertility is the main reason parents seek to adopt children they are not related to. These may include wanting to cement a new family following divorce or death of one parent, compassion motivated by religious or philosophical conviction, to avoid contributing to overpopulation out of the belief that it is more responsible to care for otherwise parent-less children than to reproduce, to ensure that inheritable diseases e.
Although there are a range of possible reasons, the most recent study of experiences of women who adopt suggests they are most likely to be 40—44 years of age, currently married, have impaired fertility, and childless.
Alternatively, prospective adoptive parents sometimes avoid intermediaries and connect with women directly, often with a written contract; this is not permitted in some jurisdictions. Many times the foster parents take on the adoption when the children become legally free. Its importance as an avenue for adoption varies by country.
Of theadoptions in the U. This can occur through both public and private agencies. In some countries, such as Sweden, these adoptions account for the majority of cases see above Table. Recognizing the difficulties and challenges associated with international adoption, and in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption and exploitation which sometimes accompanies it, the Hague Conference on Private International Law developed the Hague Adoption Conventionwhich came into force on 1 May and has been ratified by 85 countries as of November In the United States, embryo adoption is governed by property law rather than by the court systems, in contrast to traditional adoption.
The particular terms of a common-law adoption are defined by each legal jurisdiction. For example, the US state of California recognizes common law relationships after co-habitation of 2 years. The practice is called "private fostering" in Britain.
Disruption adoption Disruption refers to the termination of an adoption. This includes adoptions that end prior to legal finalization and those that end after that point in U. The Disruption process is usually initiated by adoptive parents via a court petition and is analogous to divorce proceedings.
The wide range of values reflects the paucity of information on the subject and demographic factors such as age; it is known that older children are more prone to having their adoptions disrupted. Joint adoption allowed Second-parent adoption allowed No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 26 countries, and in various sub-national territories.
LGBT adoption may also be in the form of step-child adoption, wherein one partner in a same-sex couple adopts the biological child of the other partner.Early childhood education topic. United States House Education Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education It may include: Basic education Early childhood education Preschool education Primary or elementary education Secondary education See also Pre-tertiary-education accreditation K–12 (education) .
Course Area: History Designations: Statewide Core This course surveys the United States from the end of the Civil War to the present with emphasis on social, . Educational articles are an excellent resource for parents who are interested in learning about the best parenting practices from experts in the field.
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