Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing EMDR is a psychotherapy treatment that was originally designed to alleviate the distress associated with traumatic memories Shapiro, a, b. After successful treatment with EMDR therapy, affective distress is relieved, negative beliefs are reformulated, and physiological arousal is reduced. During EMDR therapy the client attends to emotionally disturbing material in brief sequential doses while simultaneously focusing on an external stimulus. Therapist directed lateral eye movements are the most commonly used external stimulus but a variety of other stimuli including hand-tapping and audio stimulation are often used Shapiro,
One2 used desensitization with civilian participants, and two3,4 tested flooding exposure with veteran participants. All achieved only moderate effects after sessions.
In contrast, the EMDR study showed significant desensitization of a traumatic memory in one session. Exposure therapy also requires in vivo exposure homework in which the client engages in an avoided activity related to the trauma e.
Although exposure therapy, as generally advocated for use in the USA, demands many client hours e.
The necessity of homework compliance may limit the generalizability of exposure therapy to community settings, where compliance is much less likely10, and may limit its effectiveness with clients whose function is impaired because of severe distress. The British researchers also reported that the clinicians administering exposure therapy became disturbed because of the detailed stories used in treatment.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)1 is an empirically validated psychotherapy approach that medical personnel can employ to treat the sequelae of psychological trauma and other negative life experiences. Its ability to rapidly treat unprocessed memories of these adverse experiences has important implications for . Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 7, essays. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is a treatment used in psychotherapy to alleviate distress associated with trauma (Shapiro, ). During EMDR clients reprocess information while focusing on external stimuli such as, lateral eye movements, hand tapping, and audio stimulation.
Studies using participants with PTSD14,15,16,17 have found significant decreases in a wide range of symptoms after two or three active treatment sessions. Treatment effects appear to be well maintained at follow-up assessments.
Studies using waitlist controls found EMDR superior; studies comparing EMDR to commonly used treatments such as biofeedback relaxation19, active listening16, and various forms of individual therapy in a Kaiser Permanente HMO facility12 found EMDR superior to the control condition on measures of posttraumatic stress.
Five randomized clinical trials have compared EMDR to exposure therapies20,21,31 and to cognitive therapies plus exposure22, Two studies reported a superiority for EMDR on measures of PTSD intrusive symptoms8,9 and one study which used imaginal plus therapist assisted in vivo exposure reported a CBT superiority in 2 of 10 subscales.
This makes the overall treatment time for EMDR substantially less and easier for many clients. One meta-analysis27 also examined efficiency and concluded that EMDR was more efficient than CBT as the research studies had used fewer sessions to achieve similar results.
Others27,29,30 argue that this conclusion overlooks core differences between the two treatment approaches. A randomized process analysis of one session each also found significant differences between the two.
Is EMDR an exposure therapy? Journal of Traumatic Stress.
Brief psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, Imaginal flooding as supplementary treatment for PTSD in combat veterans: Behavior Therapy, 20, Efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder.
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedure and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.
Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 67, A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67, Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, Client compliance with exposure treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder.
Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is a treatment used in psychotherapy to alleviate distress associated with trauma (Shapiro, ).
During EMDR clients reprocess information while focusing on external stimuli such as, lateral eye movements, hand tapping, and audio stimulation. Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) has been used in trauma therapy for the last 20 years.
As with any innovative and new treatment there are proponents and opponents both trying to convince their peers and the public about the validity and usefulness of the treatment.
Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 7, essays.
This is a case example for the treatment of PTSD using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. EMDR is conditionally recommended by the APA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of PTSD.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Essay Sample. Abstract. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is a relatively new method that has been developed in the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSDs). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) EMDR which is a psychotherapy emphasizes that psychopathology is caused by disturbing memories.
It helps in PTSD symptoms.