After World War II Functionalism and education, however, the subject received renewed interest around the world: These all implied that, with industrializationthe need for a technologically skilled labour force undermines class distinctions and other ascriptive systems of stratification, and that education promotes social mobility.
However, statistical and field research across numerous societies showed a persistent link between an individual's social class and achievement, and suggested that education could only achieve limited social mobility.
Neo-Marxists argued that school education simply produced a docile labour force essential to late-capitalist class relations. Theoretical perspectives[ edit ] The sociology of education contains a number of theories. Some of the main theories are presented below. Political arithmetic[ edit ] The Political Arithmetic tradition within the sociology of education began with Hogben  and denotes a tradition of politically critical quantitative research dealing with social inequalities, especially those generated by social stratification Heath More recent work in this tradition has broadened its focus to include gender,   ethnic differentials  and international differences.
The political arithmetic tradition was attacked by the 'New Sociology of Education' of the s  which rejected quantitative research methods.
This heralded a period of methodological division within the sociology of education. However, the political arithmetic tradition, while rooted in quantitative methods, has increasingly engaged with mixed methods approaches. Hence structural functionalists believe the aim of key institutions, such as education, is to socialize children and teenagers.
Socialization is the process by which the new generation learns the knowledge, attitudes and values that they will need as productive citizens. Although this aim is stated in the formal curriculum,  it is mainly achieved through the hidden curriculum a subtler, but nonetheless powerful, indoctrination of the norms and values of the wider society.
Students learn these values because their behavior at school is regulated Durkheim in  until they gradually internalize and accept them.
Filling roles in society[ edit ] Education must also perform another function: As various jobs become vacant, they must be filled with the appropriate people. Therefore, the other purpose of education is to sort and rank individuals for placement in the labor market [Munro, ].
Those with high achievement will be trained for the most important jobs and in reward, be given the highest incomes. Those who achieve the least, will be given the least demanding intellectually at any rate, if not physically jobs, and hence the least income.
According to Sennet and Cobb however, "to believe that ability alone decides who is rewarded is to be deceived". They are therefore "cooled out"  from school with the least qualifications, hence they get the least desirable jobs, and so remain working class.
Sargent confirms this cycle, arguing that schooling supports continuity, which in turn supports social order.
Where teachers have softened the formality of regular study and integrated student's preferred working methods into the curriculum, they noted that particular students displayed strengths they had not been aware of before.
This knowledge isn't very meaningful to many of the students, who see it as pointless. Sargent believes that for working-class students, striving to succeed and absorbing the school's middle class values, are accepting their inferior social position as much as if they were determined to fail.
The federal government subsidises 'independent' private schools enabling the rich to obtain 'good education' by paying for it. In this way, the continuation of privilege and wealth for the elite is made possible in continuum.
Conflict theorists believe this social reproduction continues to occur because the whole education system is overlain with ideology provided by the dominant group. In effect, they perpetuate the myth that education is available to all to provide a means of achieving wealth and status.
Anyone who fails to achieve this goal, according to the myth, has only themselves to blame. They have been encouraged to believe that a major goal of schooling is to strengthen equality while, in reality, schools reflect society's intention to maintain the previous unequal distribution of status and power [Fitzgerald, cited in  ].
This perspective has been criticised as deterministic and pessimistic, while there is some evidence for social mobility among disadvantaged students.The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes.
It is mostly concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher, further, adult, and continuing education.
Functionalism and Education Evaluate Functionalists approach to education Functionalists believe that the educational system is a positive educational experience, which benefits both children and society.
|Theories of Education||Social Movements Theories of Education Historically, American education served both political and economic needs, which dictated the function of education.|
|Social Movements Theories of Education Historically, American education served both political and economic needs, which dictated the function of education. Today, sociologists and educators debate the function of education.|
|What is the point of education? A functionalist perspective | benjaminpohle.com||Functionalist perspective of education-revision notes In same way the Family module has competing perspectives so too does the education unit.|
|Sociology of education - Wikipedia||C N Trueman "Functionalism and Education" historylearningsite.|
|Functionalism and Education - History Learning Site||Introduction to Functionalism Education has many stages; these include Pre School, Primary education, Secondary education, Further education and Higher education. Functionalists believe that education provides unity and togetherness and has a positive impact on society.|
It socialises young people into cultural values, such as achievement, individualism and equality of . Functionalists focus on the positive functions performed by the education system. There are four positive functions that education performs 1. Creating social solidarity 2.
Teaching skills necessary for work 3. Teaching us core values 4.
Role Allocation and meritocracy 1. Continue reading →. The functionalist theory The functionalist theory focuses on the ways that universal education serves the needs of society.
Functionalists first see education in its manifest role: conveying basic knowledge and skills to the next generation. functionalist perspective by Sam Cook a former student Functionalist perspective of education-revision notes In same way the Family module has competing perspectives so too does the education unit.
The first perspective we’ll look at is the functionalist perspective.
Functionalists see education as a miniature society, a society that develops a sense of commitment to a social group. Functionalism is an aspect of society which is interdependent and contributes to society functioning and creating mechanical and organic solidarity.