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One of them, the RS Sarmat, was depicted as placing a nuclear weapon into a presumably orbital trajectory that could strike targets by traveling the long way around the globe in this case, with fictionalized land masses, but later depicted as descending on Florida.
The US and USSR had already publicly stated their intention not to station nuclear weapons in space, on the Moon, or on other celestial bodies in through UN Resolutionbut because the statement was not legally binding, the US was not obligated to verify that the USSR was honoring the agreement.
By contrast, in preparation for the legally binding Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited exo-atmospheric nuclear testing, the US deployed the Vela surveillance satellites to detect the characteristic radiation from exo-atmospheric and later, atmospheric nuclear explosions.
In fact, the Soviets only agreed to the proposal on the condition that measures such as pre-launch inspection of payloads would not be required, and that the US would be satisfied by using its own national technical means for verification. However, elevating the statement to a legally binding instrument raised questions about the US ability to verify that other countries were in compliance, and events soon after the signing forced them to consider what would constitute a violation.
Establishing a threshold for violation Two incidents in forced the Johnson Administration to establish a threshold for violation of the treaty that hinged on the interpretation of placing nuclear weapons in orbit around the Earth or stationing such weapons in outer space.
The first incident was in response to a June New York Times article reporting alleged Pentagon plans to develop a nuclear-tipped orbital ABM system. The State Department, who was generally tasked with interpretation of the treaty, stated internally that such a system would violate the treaty because it permanently stationed nuclear weapons in orbit, and it would be impossible to differentiate offensive from defensive orbiting nuclear weapons.
The weapon consisted of a modified R missile the RORB that placed a two- to three-megaton warhead into an orbital trajectory over the southern hemisphere in order to evade US early warning radar and possibly ABM systems by flying lower and approaching from the south, using a retrorocket to de-orbit itself.
US allies also privately raised concerns, and US the intelligence community suggested it could presage development of a multi-orbit bombardment system. So it was that the Johnson administration set the bar in However unlikely it was that space-based nuclear weapons would be deployed, government officials nevertheless dutifully prepared for verifying compliance with this prohibition.
Inferring the right to inspect satellites The treaty does not include an explicit permission for inspection of spacecraft to ensure compliance. During negotiations inthe US delegation pushed for all facilities on celestial bodies to be open to all parties, akin to the Antarctic Treaty, but the Soviets resisted on the grounds that such access could be unsafe, and that access should only be permitted on a pre-arranged, reciprocal basis.
The US delegation eventually accepted this limitation under the belief that any effort to evade inspection on these grounds would be obvious. As a result of this omission, the US had to establish that the treaty did not prohibit inspection of spacecraft for the purpose of verifying treaty compliance.
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Consequently, Johnson administration officials argued that the treaty implicitly permitted the use of national technical means to verify compliance: If any presumption against a right of inspection is raised The Joint Chiefs of Staff are seriously concerned about this lack of verification capability, and they believe that continued effort should be expended toward its attainment.
As a contingency, capabilities for physical inspection of spacecraft and facilities were evaluated. The Department of Defense reported that Gemini spacecraft had demonstrated the capability to rendezvous with satellites, and proposed that the MOL could be called on to conduct inspection missions within its limited delta-V.
In the extremely unlikely scenario that they would be called on to inspect lunar facilities, NASA noted that: The basic capability through lunar orbiter photographic reconnaissance seems very good, with resolution of one foot and the ability to cover any spot on the moon.
A single weapon in space would not upset the [strategic] balance. It would be extremely difficult to conceal such a program. When viewed in this light, it is clear that our national capabilities will provide us the necessary information for protecting our security interests.
This is clearly within U. Department Press Briefing - March 1, Dec 05, · How to plan an IB English Paper 1 commentary with IB 45 graduate Jackson Huang.
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