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To learn more about the benefits of becoming a member click here. Since Scottish scientists succeeded in cloning the sheep known as Dolly, the prospect of human cloning has catapulted its way into the public consciousness. In earlyan Italian and a U. The duo recently announced their plans to begin implanting cloned human embryos into women--a step they may have already taken by the time this article is published.
On July 31,the U. This bill, which Rep. Bart Stupak D-MI and I wrote, is designed to ban human cloning for both "research" and "reproductive" purposes.
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On Sunday, November 25,scientists at Advanced Cell Technology of Worcester, Massachusetts announced that they had created the first human embryo clones for the purpose of destructive research. It is now more important than ever to ban human cloning.
The bill does not ban scientifically and medically useful cloning practices such as the cloning of DNA fragments molecular cloningthe duplication of tissue or cells in culture cell cloningor whole-organism or embryo cloning of non-human animals.
Nor does the bill ban laboratory practices such as parthenogenesis or "twinning.
Indeed, scientists such as Panos Zavos and Severino Antinori stated in mid that they expected to begin implanting cloned human embryos into women within the next several months. They were enthusiastic about pursuing such a feat despite the serious genetic problems encountered in animal cloning, the known risks to the mother, and the great potential for serious birth defects.
Ninety-five to ninety-seven percent of animal cloning attempts still end in failure, and the scientists who cloned Dolly failed times before they succeeded in producing a single live-born clone of an adult sheep.
Most scientific experts believe that attempts to clone humans will result in even higher failure rates. Scientists such as Ian Wilmut who produced Dolly and Rudolf Jaenisch of MIT have concluded that the most likely cause of abnormal development in cloned animals is faulty reprogramming of the genome.
When the nucleus of a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated egg, the DNA in the nucleus has to be "reprogrammed" in order for a human being to develop fully.
If this reprogramming of the nuclear DNA does not go exactly right, abnormal gene expression of one or some of the more than 30, genes can result.
Fortunately, the majority of Congress is outspokenly opposed to human cloning for reproductive purposes. However, this type of human cloning is also grossly unethical for at least three reasons.
First, research cloning can only be justified by the utilitarian calculus that prizes the lives of the millions of people who could potentially be treated or cured as a result of the research over the lives of the embryos who would be destroyed in order for the research to proceed. However, it is never ethical to sacrifice one human life for the real or potential benefit of others.
Second, it is unethical to view a human being--regardless of its age--as a means to an end. Even supporters of embryonic stem cell research and other embryo research have long been opposed to the "special creation of embryos solely for the purpose of research.
To evade this criticism, proponents are now beginning to claim that human cloning for purposes of research does not create human embryos, but only "activated cells. As one scientist from Johns Hopkins stated in his recent testimony before the Senate, research cloning should be called "nuclear transplantation," not "cloning.
Third, research cloning will undoubtedly lead to a new exploitation of women. The Washington Post reported recently that the side effects of the injections are abdominal pain and nausea; in 3 to 5 percent of cases hyperstimulation of the ovaries occurs, causing severe abdominal pain, and on rare occasions surgery is required which may leave the patient infertile.
Contrary to women who assume the risks associated with egg donation in order to undergo in vitro fertilization, women who take such risks for the purpose of research cloning would not be motivated by the desire to have a child, but, oftentimes, by the desire for financial gain. It is likely that women of lower economic means will be exploited in this way.
In addition to the above ethical considerations, research cloning should be forbidden because it increases the likelihood of reproductive cloning. Preventing the implantation and subsequent birth of cloned embryos once they are available in the laboratory will prove to be impossible. The most effective way to ban reproductive cloning is to stop the process at the beginning, with the creation of cloned embryos.
Since the overwhelming consensus is that reproductive cloning should be prohibited, steps must be taken to ban research cloning as well. It is nonsensical to believe that we can ban one without also banning the other. Finally, research cloning is likely to fall woefully short of its alleged promise.Cloning should be banned all around the world for many reasons, including the risks to the thing that is being cloned, cloning reduces genetic differences and finally it is not ethical.
Almost every clone has mysteriously died even before they are born. Human cloning should be banned (Affirmative) – Argumentative speech Essay Sample. It is the year As you pick up your daily issue of The Age, you begin to read some of the articles on the front page.
This is a model answer for a human cloning essay. If you look at the task, the wording is slightly different from the common 'do you agree or disagree' essay. However, it is essentially asking the same thing. As people live longer and longer, the idea of cloning human beings in order to provide.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from benjaminpohle.com May 14, · Therefore, a critical approach and analysis of cloning show how fascinating genetic is through science and technology, however, the issue of cloning should be banned particularly in humans to ensure humans individuality is sustained while at the same time appreciating nature benjaminpohle.comon: N Cave Creek Rd, Phoenix, In this essay I will examine both sides of the argument into the banning of cloning starting with reasons why cloning should not be banned.
Firstly, cloning, in the respect of human cloning, is no different from any other medical technology.