Applied to operational or internal issues Environment and external issues Covers various issues like demand, supply, product pricing, factor pricing, production, consumption, economic welfare, etc. Covers various issues like, national income, general price level, distribution, employment, money etc. Importance Helpful in determining the prices of a product along with the prices of factors of production land, labor, capital, entrepreneur etc.
Advanced Search Abstract This article carries out a detailed descriptive analysis of employment dynamics of new firms, using comparable and highly representative data for 19 countries. It does so by using a novel analytical decomposition of the contribution of new firms to job creation, which allows to separately focus on different margins.
In particular, the contribution of new firms to job creation can be expressed as a combination of four different elements: Introduction The recent industrial organization and firm dynamics literature have devoted considerable attention to studying the firm entry, its determinants, and its economic impacts.
Recent contributions to the literature have emphasized the key role of start-ups and young firms for job creation. However, comprehensive analyses of these dynamics across countries are still limited.
In particular, the contribution of new firms to job creation can be expressed as a combination of four different components: This comprehensive characterization of employment dynamics of entrants points to regularities and differences in business dynamism across countries, and uncovers a number of important stylized facts.
On the one hand, the analysis points to some features that are common across the countries under scrutiny. First, even though the large majority of surviving entrants do not grow, the few that do contribute disproportionately to job creation across countries.
Third, in the first years of activity average employment growth is also higher but much more volatile. Fourth—extending country-specific US-based analyses Decker et al.
Finally, across countries, average size at entry is small, with a certain degree of heterogeneity related to specific sectors of the economy such as basic pharmaceuticals or transport equipment.
On the other hand, some features appear more heterogeneous across countries. Importantly, the analysis shows that economies with similar aggregate contribution of new firms to the creation of new jobs have a different interplay of different margins.
This highlights the fact that heterogeneity not only across firms Dosi et al. Furthermore, although for all countries most growth appears to happen in the first 2 or 3 years of activity, there are significant differences in the extent to which new firms continue to growth afterward.
These findings are particularly relevant and original, as they rely on a novel database that is based on highly representative data sources typically business registers and is built using a single statistical routine that provides comparable and harmonized definitions across countries at a unique level of detail Criscuolo et al.
They therefore represent an important novel building block for the evidence base for policy in this area, given their unique breadth in coverage of both the underlying business population within countries and the extensive number of countries included.
Finally, the richness and replicability of the micro-aggregation procedure make it a unique tool for longitudinal cross-country analysis. The descriptive analysis presented in this work is particularly relevant from a policy perspective.
Existing cross-country differences in start-up employment dynamics appear particularly evident along two elements of the proposed decomposition: This suggests that policies may play a significant role in determining these channels.
In fact, the evidence presented quite clearly suggests that the bottleneck for a dynamic business environment relates for some countries to entry, while in others to the scale-up performance. These differences might entail that in the first group of countries policies should focus on either overcoming structural factors that make entry more difficult or alleviate policy challenges and institutional features that might discourage entry entry barriers, red tape, tax wedges, access to early-stage finance, etc.
The second group might want to make particular attention to obstacles to employment growth driven by policy, such as hiring and firing costs, access to growth finance, unintended effects of size-contingent policies, etc.
In addition, some policies—such as civil justice efficiency, contract enforcement, and bankruptcy legislation—can be beneficial to both groups of countries.
Our decomposition can therefore be used as a diagnostic tool by policy makers, allowing to benchmark performance in these areas and focus policy interventions to improve either the start-up ratio, the scale-up success, or both. The article is organized as follows.
The next section briefly discusses the main contributions to the literature related to this study. Section 3 illustrates the recently collected DynEmp v.
Finally, Section 5 concludes the findings and proposes avenues for future research. Related literature The recent industrial organization and firm dynamics literature have devoted considerable attention to the study of entry, its determinants, and its economic impacts see Santarelli and Vivarelli, and Van Praag and Versloot, for reviews and Nightingale and Coad, for a critical analysis.
Recent contributions to the literature have emphasized the key role of young firms for job creation and employment dynamics. Focusing on the United States, Haltiwanger et al. Across a large sample of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD and emerging economies, young small firms—rather than small firms as a whole—reveal to be net job creators, even during the Great Recession Criscuolo et al.
In this context, a detailed characterization of employment dynamics of entrants and young firms across countries appears particularly interesting and relevant.
3 Macroeconomic stability, inclusive growth and employment 1. Introduction Around million adults in the developing world are unable to earn enough to keep their. May 09, · Microeconomics, not macroeconomics, is useful for MBA students, according to economist Scott Sumner in a recent blog post. The real problem is that macroeconomics is taught all wrong for business. Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such that many producers sell products that are differentiated from one another (e.g. by branding or quality) and hence are not perfect benjaminpohle.com monopolistic competition, a firm takes the prices charged by its rivals as given and ignores the impact of its own prices on the prices of other firms.
This article contributes to the line of research on cross-country differences in economic dynamism and allocative efficiency based on comparative firm demographics.benjaminpohle.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of benjaminpohle.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
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construction industry in the developing countries is more than the GDP growth rate, and that the percentage it takes in the GDP of developed countries relatively diminishes.
Kargi  maintains that construction industry’s growth in the economic fluctuation periods, in the aftermath of . b) microeconomics theory can be tested and macroeconomics theory cannot be tested c) all aggregates are made up of individual and firms d) the effects of macroeconomics subjects such as inflation and unemployment are independent of individual consumers and firms.
Macro benjaminpohle.com whole economy..E.e.. Macroeconomics examines the aggregate behavior of the economy (i. Macro is been derived from the Greek word “MAKROS”which means LARGE.
Macro economic is the study of large part of the economy i. how the actions of all the individuals and firms in the economy interact to produce a particular level of.