As can be seen, high enantiomeric excesses are much more readily attainable for the unreacted starting material.
Manufacture of bio-based propene bio-based propylene and poly propene polypropylene a Manufacture of bio-based propene via-fermentation There are several methods being developed to produce propene from biomass.
The butenes butene and butene can be produced by either dehydration of biobutanol Figure 3, route 7 or by dimerization of bioethene Figure 3, route The dimerization of ethene to butene is carried out by passing heated ethene over a zeolite impregnated with a transition metal complex.
A variety of complexes of rhodium, titanium and other metals are used: Small amounts of coke are deposited on the catalyst and are removed from time to time by passing heated air through the reactor.
Olefin is the older name for the homologous series, alkenes. Methanol can be converted into high purity ethene and propene via dimethyl ether Figure 3, routes 10 and 9.
Methanol vapour is passed over alumina at ca K. This mixture of gases is then passed over a bed of a zeolite in a form that encourages high selectivity towards alkenes with numbers of carbon atoms from 2 to 8.
However, by using a zeolite treated with acid, almost all the alkene produced is propene, this being known as the MTP Methanol To Propene process Figure 3, route 9.
The propene is purified by cooling it to a liquid and then subjecting the liquid to fractional distillation. As discussed in the section on methanol, a similar process is used to make hydrocarbons used in gasoline, the MTG Methanol to Gasoline process.
Synthesis gas carbon monoxide and hydrogen is used to convert bioethanol to propanol Figure 3, route 4: The reaction is catalysed by a ruthenium-cobalt complex salt. A molybdenum-based catalyst is also being used as it is more resistant to poisoning by sulfur-containing impurities in the feedstock.
Subsequently, propanol is dehydrated to propene Figure 3, route 8: Manufacture of 1,4-dimethylbenzene p-xylene Much research is being devoted to producing hydrocarbons such as 1,4-dimethylbenzene p-xylenefrom biomass.
Here the overall strategy is to remove the oxygen atoms in complex molecules in biomass, by first converting biomass to bioethanol and dehydrating it to bio-based ethene ethylene. The alkene can be converted into a trimer, hexene, when passed over a chromium-based catalyst: Hexene reacts with another molecule of ethene on an iridium-based catalyst to form 3,6-dimethylcyclohexene, which is dehydrogenated to 1,4-dimethylbenzene, when passed over aluminium oxide impregnated with platinum: The aromatic hydrocarbon is the starting point for the manufacture of polyesters.
Manufacture of fuels Synthesis gas is converted into a hydrocarbon wax a mixture of long-chain alkanes by heating it and passing the vapour over a cobalt catalyst the Fischer-Tropsch process Figure 2, route 5.
The hydrocarbon waxes are subsequently catalytically cracked with excess hydrogen hydrocracking Figure 2, route 9 to form smaller alkanes, for example: These alkanes can be used in liquid fuels, diesel, kerosine and naphtha, the choice depending on their volatility.
Smaller amounts of light gases are also produced in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor and the hydrocracker for example, ethane and propane. These can either be recycled back to the gasifier or used for heat and power production in the biorefinery. There is increasing interest in producing aromatic hydrocarbons from biomassfor use as a chemical feedstock and as a fuel aromatic hydrocarbons have a high octane rating.
Although the principal use of bio-oil, produced by the fast pyrolysis of biomass, is as a fuel, it is also a promising source of chemicals. The bio-oil can be separated by distillation into two components, a lighter fraction and a heavier one Figure 2, route 8.
The lighter fraction can be catalytically cracked Figure 2, route 11in a similar way to the cracking of gas oil, to yield a gas, containing alkanes and alkenes and a naphtha-like liquid which can be steam cracked to yield ethene, propene and buta-1,3-diene Figure 2, route These are all major feedstocks for a variety of important chemicals.
The heavier fraction contains substituted phenols and aromatic oligomers small polymers of monomers and on passing the liquid and their vapours over a heated zeolite catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor a high concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, methylbenzene toluene and the three methylbenzenes xylenesknown as BTX, are recovered Figure 2, route Alternatively the vapours can be mixed with hydrogen and passed over a catalyst such as a cobalt- molybdenum sulphide on alumina.
In another process that is being developed, finely divided biomass for example, sawdust is passed as a fluid, over a heated zeolite catalyst, in the absence of air Figure 2, route This produces a mixture of benzene, methylbenzene toluene and dimethylbenzenes xylenes as well as other hydrocarbons.
In another new development, biomass is heated with acid and the complex carbohydrates for example, starch are hydrolysed to simpler carbohydrates for example fructose and glucose Figure 2, route 4.
These are purified and their aqueous solutions undergo a process, known as chemocatalysis or bioforming Figure 2, route They are converted, catalytically, in the aqueous phase, to form a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic oxygenates as well as hydrogen.
The mixture can then be reduced with hydrogen to hydrocarbonsand passed over a zeolite catalyst to form a mixture that is similar to a gasoline feedstock with a high aromatic content, and thus a high octane rating Figure 2, route Manufacture of other chemicals Examples of other chemicals produced by fermentation are described in other units.
These include the biofuels, such as biobutanol and biodieseland propane-1,3-diol and 2-hydroxypropionic acid lactic acidboth used to make polymers.
A very wide range of chemicals can be produced in chemocatalytic bioforming reactions Figure 2, route One chemical that is exciting much interest is hydroxymethylfurfural, HMF, formed by dehydration of simple carbohydrates such as fructose.Manufacture of fuels.
Synthesis gas is converted into a hydrocarbon wax (a mixture of long-chain alkanes) by heating it and passing the vapour over a cobalt catalyst (the Fischer-Tropsch process) (Figure 2, route 5).
Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) uses metathesis catalysts to generate polymers from cyclic olefins. ROMP is most effective on strained cyclic olefins, because the relief of ring strain is a major driving force for the reaction – cyclooctene and norbornenes are excellent monomers for ROMP, but cyclohexene is very reluctant to form any significant amount of polymer.
ZEON Corporation research and development information including its R&D philosophy and system. In organic chemistry, kinetic resolution is a means of differentiating two enantiomers in a racemic benjaminpohle.com kinetic resolution, two enantiomers react with different reaction rates in a chemical reaction with a chiral catalyst or reagent, resulting in an enantioenriched sample of the less reactive enantiomer.
As opposed to chiral resolution, kinetic resolution does not rely on different. The electrocatalytic water oxidation performance of a new cobalt‐based catalyst, Co 3 (BO 3) 2, with a Kotoite‐type crystal structure was investigated at neutral benjaminpohle.comization of the catalyst with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) improved the electrocatalytic properties significantly.
Olefin metathesis is a chemical reaction in which a molecule with a pair of carbon-carbon double bonds, known also as olefins or hydrocarbons, come together and exchange carbon atoms with one another, forming new value-added molecules in the process.