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From the early 9th century, the territory of the country which is today known as The Netherlands was part of Frisia, which covered the whole coastal area from southern Denmark in the east to Flanders in the west. Under the partition of imperial territories agreed at Thionville inFrisia was assigned to Charles, eldest son of Emperor Charles I [1]before reverting to the emperor on his son's early death in Afterthe territory of the future Netherlands became the northernmost part of the kingdom of Lotharingia, created under the treaty of Verdun which finally settled the lengthy disputes between the sons of Emperor Louis I. The county of Holland was the western part of The Netherlands, stretching approximately from the island of Texel in the north to Dordrecht in the south.

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Soon afterwards, under Clement VIII, and before the present building was finished, this became the principal residence of the Popes.

It continued as such untilSingle party heinsberg has since then been the official if not the actual residence of both the Kings and the Presidents of Italy.

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The Popes retreated back to the Vatican and the Vatican Palace. What was left of the ancient Lateran Palace was removed by Sixtus V, who then built the smaller existing building.

Single party heinsberg

Although the Pope had been the de facto governor of Rome for a few years, the Donation of Pepin in begins the formal history of the Papacy as a territorial power. This would last untilgiving the Papal States a run Single party heinsberg years. The original terms of the grant were for the "Exarchate of Ravenna ," i.

The most important parts of this were, of course, Rome itself and the area of Romagna around Ravenna in the north, with a narrow salient connecting them. While the Donation was made on paper inPepin was not able to deliver practical control of the territory to the Pope untilwhich thus is taken by many as the effective beginning of the Papal States.

The ability of the Popes to control the outlying territories, or even Rome itself, was, however, very uneven.

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Rome was often under the control of turbulent local aristocrats, and one reason for the Papal relocation to Avignon was to escape them. After the return of the Popes to Rome, it was some time before the territorial fortunes could be restored.

This was for his own benefit; but the deaths of him and his reputed father who was perhaps trying to poison someone else and the accession of the warrior Pope Julius II resulted in its being secured for the Papacy.

Avignon was still a Papal possession, and there were some outlying holdings in Italy, like Benevento. This arrangement was then fairly stable until the French Revolution, when Avignon was lost, the Papal States temporarily annexed, and the Pope himself eventually imprisoned by Napoleon.

The restorations of returned the Papal Italian territories, until the period of the unification of Italy, This formally ended the political independence of the Papacy until the Concordat with Mussolini in recognized the sovereignty of the Vatican City.

A document was manufactured, the "Donation of Constantine," whereby secular authority over the entire Western Roman Empire had been given to the Pope by Constantine the Great. This became the basis of Mediaeval Papal claims of authority over all secular rulers in Francia.

The subsequent Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism, not to mention the Reformation and the exposure of the Donation of Constantine as a forgery, put the Papacy at such disadvantages that it never again had as much leverage as before over secular rulers.

This began a long struggle between the German Emperors and the Popes for control of Italy and control of the Church in Germany.

The successes of the Popes crippled the authority of the German Throne, and ensured that Germany and Italy would enter the Modern period fragmented and anarchic. The political consequences even in the 20th century were severe, as the political immaturity of Germany and Italy rendered them vulnerable to ideologies like Fascism and Nazism.

The war and mass murder effected by the former temptations echo in the terrorism practiced by the die-hard believers of the latter, even after the Fall of Communism. In the 10th and 11th centuries, we have a situation that looks like that under the Renaissance Popes of the Borgias, Della Roveres, and Medici, as we will see below.

A family of Roman nobility, the Tusculani, in league with the Dukes of Spoletofounds a virtual dynasty of Popes. The final score is eight Popes by marriage or descent, which is much better than any of the Renaissance families could boast of. The Tusculani, whose first member here is Theophylact, may have been, with such a Greek name, derived from a military family installed when Rome was ruled from Constantinople, or from a comparable family from Southern Italy.

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This John may also have been the first Pope to adopt a new name as Pope, having previously been known as Octavian. Soon this becomes customary. At the same time, with the report that John XI was the natural son of Sergius III and Marozia of Tusculum, there is the kind of reputation about the Papacy, as a "pornocracy," that we later get again with the Borgias.

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