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PDF version Introduction Child care may be defined as care for young children, provided by adults who are not their parents. Subject Child care is now an ordinary part of life for children in most western countries.
More than half of infants are placed in some form of child care for at least ten hours during their first year of life, and more than three-quarters of families with young children depend on child care as a support for maternal employment.
Formal child care can also provide early childhood education. In fact, child care, nursery school, and preschool programs are often indistinguishable in their activities.
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This increase represents a dramatic shift in child rearing styles, and has prompted concerns as to whether child care poses any risks to healthy child development.
Research Context There have been three waves of child care research. The first wave focused on simplistic comparisons between children in child care and children in exclusive maternal care.
There were two problems with these studies: Researchers could not draw definitive conclusions about child care effects, because these two groups of children differ in myriad ways; and child care was treated as a uniform experience.
The second wave focused on variations in child care quality and controlled statistically for pre-existing differences among families.
The third wave has extended this research by modeling how the family and child care contexts jointly influence child development. Key Research Questions Four questions have driven research on child care over the past ten years.
Chief among them is whether extensive child care in the first year of life disrupts the mother—child attachment relationship. For example, theorists2 hypothesized that daily separations might cause infants to lose confidence in the availability and responsiveness of their parents and reduce opportunities for interactions.
The third question focuses on hours in care as a risk factor for behaviour problems, such as aggression.
The fourth area of inquiry concerns the effects of the types of care that have been examined. Recent Research Results Mother—Child Attachment Early studies yielded mixed results regarding whether early, extensive child care posed a risk for the development of secure attachment relationships.
Associations between security and five child care parameters were examined, namely age of entry into child care, continuity of care, type of care, quality of child care, and amount of care.
None of these associations were significant. Child Care Quality Child care quality can be assessed via structural features of the child care setting.
For example, child—staff ratio, group size, and caregiver education and training. These kinds of variables are policy relevant, because governments can and do regulate child care programs. For example, a ratio of 3 or 4 infants to 1 teacher is generally accepted to be a quality threshold in western countries.
Child care quality can also be assessed based on observations of behaviours that reflect positive interactions between children and their teachers as well as peers.
In advanced, controlled studies, the effects of differences in family background among children are controlled statistically in an effort to isolate the importance of child care. Results from a large number of studies demonstrate that child care quality matters.
In fact, the importance of child care quality is one of the most robust findings in developmental psychology.
Children who experience high-quality child care have higher scores on achievement and language tests, show better social skills and fewer behavioural problems. Children from families with fewer economic resources who attend quality programs begin school with skills that can increase their chances of academic success.
Hours in Child Care Although the literature is mixed, there is increasing evidence that hours in child care may constitute a risk factor for the development of behaviour problems, including aggression. Some researchers link such a risk with infant child care in particular;5 however, other researchers have failed to replicate this finding, even when using the same data set.
In future work, it will be important to identify the processes through which hours in care may pose a risk. For example, some researchers have speculated that large group sizes exposure to many peers may increase the frequency of acting out behaviours that go unnoticed, and therefore uncorrected, by caregivers.How Bullying Affects Children Nearly one in five students in an average classroom is experiencing bullying in some way.
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